Georgia is located in wrinkled Alpine zone, in Subtropical zones of northern periphery between (the 41 07 and 43 35 latitudes and West 40 05 and 46 44 longitudes). The border length is 1970 km (315 km of which (16%) is coastline). The country is bounded by Russian federation from North, from East - Azerbaijan, from South - Armenia and Turkey, from West - the Black Sea.
Georgia, known to Greeks and Romans as Kolkheti ( western part of the country ) and Iberia ( eastern part ), adopted Christianity in the IV century under the influence of Byzantium. The country managed to unite during X-XII I centuries despite numerous invasions by Arabians, Mongolians, Turks and Persians. This period in Georgian history is called "Golden Era", the King David Agmashenebeli (1089-1125) and his granddaughter the King-woman Tamar (1184-1213) made a great contribution to this event. Recollections of this period facilitated to preserve a national self-awareness in the following centuries, when Georgia was conquered by foreigners. Russia, which started annexation of this region in 1801 and finished it in 1917, was the last among such conquerors. Georgia formed a part of the Soviet Union from 1921, but it became an independent Soviet Republic of the Soviet Union in 1936.
A well-known Soviet dictator Ioseb Stalin and the "Head" of his police Lavrenti Beria, both Georgians by origin, destroyed the hope of Georgians to win a national independence. The repressions went on after Stalin’s death: in 1956 his successor Nikita Khrushov severely suppressed a revolutionary attempt by means of Soviet tanks, which was followed by deaths of hundreds of people. During Brezhnev governance Georgian Authorities gained a little success - Georgian language was declared a State language.
In present Georgian history 1989 year was a crucial moment, when in April the Soviet Army broke up a peaceful demonstration. This resulted in a murder of 20 people and the society strongly supported the policy of a complete independence and a separation from the Soviet Union. Gamsakhurdia’s victory in elections of 1990 was a direct result of it.
After winning an independence separative movements and conflicts among political forces started. The latter outgrew into an armed conflict among the supporters of the Authorities and Opposition, and as a result the President Gamsakhurdia had to leave the country. The strain continued after Eduard Shevardnadze became a leader of the country. A number of ethnic minorities: Osetians (from 1991), Abkhazians (from 1992) felt suppressed and wished to separate from Georgia when Georgia declared independence. An armed struggle began among nationalists and the Authorities. In 1993 Gansakhurdia’s supporters tried by force to return lost Power, but they failed, and in December of 1993 Gansakhurdia committed suicide. The nationalists with the hidden support of Russian Authorities managed to go out of the subordination of Georgian Authorities. Georgian Authorities had to give in to Russia, and as a result Georgia became a member of the CIS.
By 1997 the jurisdiction of Georgian Authority have not reached the territory of Abkhazia and a part of Tskhinvali. The majority of the residents of that area had to leave their homes and to look for a temporary shelter in other parts of the country.
On July 31, 1992 Georgia became the 179th member of the UN. At the same time Georgia is a member of various international and regional organizations.